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In this rapidly growing technological world, there has been a generation of enormous amount of data . And this data is shared between various devices .The communication between devices can be done by means of an electrical conductor such as wires ,cables etc. However the cable elimination technology is highly in demand at present .Unlike wired technology the cable elimination technology does not require wires or cables , instead it uses radio waves or infrared waves.
Bluetooth is one such wireless technology that is capable of sharing data within a Personal Area Network(PAN).Personal Area Network refers to a computer network that is designed to revolve around an individual , thereby serving the purpose of fulfilling the utilities of an individual .In Personal Area Network smartphones,computers,tablets,laptops,printers as well as Personal Digital Assistants(PDAs) can be connected so that data transmission can take place between them. Offline networks, Body Area Networks ,Small Home Office Networks etc are some of the examples of Personal Area Network(PAN).
The devices in PAN can use Bluetooth if they intend to talk to each other without making the use of repeater, router or even a switch. Bluetooth is well suited for exchanging data between devices that are in close proximity with each other.
Bluetooth was developed by Bluetooth Special Interest Group, and is basically a short link radio technology. Bluetooth was designed with an intention to minimize the power consumption with short range based on low cost transceiver microchips embedded in each device .It is not mandatory for the devices to be in visual line of sight of each other. Ranges of Bluetooth devices vary from class to class.For class 1 devices the is upto 100m,for class 2 devices the range is upto 10m,for class 3 devices the range is upto 1m, and that for class 4 devices the range is upto 0.5m.
Name and Logo
The name of this cable elimination technology has its roots in the name of the king Herald Bluetooth , who is remembered for his efforts to unite Denmark and Norway.The king was called Bluetooth because he had a tooth that appeared to be bluish gray.Unification of Denmark and Norway resembles the way communication protocols are united in Bluetooth. Hence the technology was named as Bluetooth.The logo of Bluetooth is a combination of two runes i.e. Hagall rune resembling the letter H and the Bjarkan rune resembling the letter B.
Bluetooth follows a layered protocol architecture which mainly consists of protocols such as Link Manager Protocol(LMP) , Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol(L2CAP) & Service Discovery Protocol(SDP).
The various specifications of Bluetooth that came into existence one after the other are as follows ; Bluetooth 1.0 & 1.0B, Bluetooth 1.1, Bluetooth 1.2, Bluetooth 2.0 + EDR, Bluetooth 2.1+ EDR, Bluetooth 3.0 + HS, Bluetooth 4.0, Bluetooth 4.1, Bluetooth 4.2, Bluetooth 5, Bluetooth 5.1.
Bluetooth uses radiowaves to exchange data between devices that are at short distances from each other .The standard frequency at which Bluetooth normally operates is 2.4GHz.Bluetooth is capable of connecting eight devices simultaneously without any interference from other wireless objects that are nearby.
Let us try to understand the working of Bluetooth with the help of a practical example. Assume that you are listening to music from your computer using wireless earphones and at the same time you want to type a document on your computer using a wireless keyboard. In this scenario the Bluetooth transceivers inbuilt in your computer as well as connected devices can make the use of 79 different frequencies in that range to prevent music getting in the way of your keyboard, it changes frequencies approximately 1600 times per second.
When someone tries to connect their Bluetooth device to their phone , then at this point of time we can say that one kind of conversation invokes between the bluetooth device and the phone. During this conversation the devices provide their details and decide whether they need to exchange the data or one of them needs to exercise control over the other. Once this conversation terminates , the two devices become well acquainted with their roles and further they connect to build a network. This Bluetooth network of connected devices is called a piconet. As soon as the connection is established , frequency hopping is started from both the devices so that the devices remain connected to each other without causing any interference. One can even relocate a device to other room and the device will continue to work as far as it is in the required range.
You can imagine your wireless mouse and computer chatting with each other,your Bluetooth speaker chatting with your smartphone but none of them intentionally disrupts the conversation of others. No doubt frequency hopping plays a key role but this is achieved because each and every device has a unique address allotted by the manufacturer.In case your wireless mouse gets a message from TV, it will automatically ignore it because the addresses are different.
Blutooth indeed had some security concerns in the beginning.Similar to any other wireless networks , sending data through radiowaves can enable the unauthorized person to access and manipulate data.But over the years the Bluetooth manufacturers had put in efforts to make the technology more secure and reliable.